ATTRIBUTION, ACKNOWLEDGMENT AND
DISPATCH OF ELECTRONIC RECORDS
11. Attribution of electronic records.
An electronic record shall be attributed to the originator—
(a) if it was sent by the originator himself;
(b) by a person who had the authority to act on behalf of the
originator in respect of that electronic record; or
(c) by an information system programmed by or on behalf of the
originator to operate automatically.
12.Acknowledgment of Receipt
(/) Where the originator has not agreed with the addressee that the
acknowledgment of receipt of electronic record be given in a particular form or
by a particular method, an acknowledgment may be given by—
(a) any communication by the addressee, automated or otherwise; or
(b) any conduct of the addressee, sufficient to indicate to the
originator that the electronic record has been received.
(2) Where the originator has stipulated that the electronic record
shall be binding only on receipt of an acknowledgment of such electronic record
by him, then unless acknowledgment has been so received, the electronic record
shall be deemed to have been never sent by the originator.
(3) Where the originator has not stipulated that the electronic
record shall be binding only on receipt of such acknowledgment, and the
acknowledgment has not been received by the originator within the time specified
or agreed or, if no time has been specified or agreed to within a reasonable
time, then the originator may give notice to the addressee stating that no
acknowledgment has been received by him and specifying a reasonable time by
which the acknowledgment must be received by him and if no acknowledgment is
received within the aforesaid time limit he may after giving notice to the
addressee, treat the electronic record as though it has never been sent.
13.Time and place of dispatch and receipt of electronic record.
(1) Save as otherwise agreed to between the originator and the
addressee, the dispatch of an electronic record occurs when it enters a computer resource outside the control of the originator.
(2) Save as otherwise agreed between the originator and the
addressee, the time of receipt of an electronic record shall be determined as
(a) if the addressee has designated a computer resource for the
purpose of receiving electronic records,—
(i) receipt occurs at the time when the electronic record enters the
designated computer resource; or
(ii) if the electronic record is sent to a computer resource of the
addressee that is not the designated computer resource, receipt occurs at the
time when the electronic record is retrieved by the addressee;
(b) if the addressee has not designated a computer resource along
with specified timings, if any, receipt occurs when the electronic record enters
the computer resource of the addressee.
(3) Save as otherwise agreed between the originator and the
addressee, an electronic record is deemed to "be dispatched at the place
where the originator has his place of business, and is deemed to be received at
(he place where the addressee has his place of business.
(4) The provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply notwithstanding
that the place where the computer resource is located may be different from the
place where the electronic record is deemed to have been received under
(5) For the purposes of this section,—
(a) if the originator or the addressee has more than one place of
business, the principal place of business, shall be the place of business;
(b) if the originator or the addressee does not have a place of
business, his usual place of residence shall be deemed to be the place of
(c) "usual place of residence", in relation to a body
corporate, means the place where it is registered.
Not for Commercial Use. Copyright (c)